Voluntary Contractor Settlement Program (VCSP)
Worker classification has generated controversy between taxpayers and the IRS for decades—with businesses pushing for independent contractor status and the IRS pushing for employee status. Businesses argue for independent contractor status to reduce or eliminate the cost of fringe benefits and payroll taxes. The IRS, on the other hand, wants workers classified as employees to facilitate the collection of payroll and income taxes and monitor taxpayer income levels.
Through the years, the courts have developed the concept of common-law employees and common-law independent contractors in precedent-setting case law. Under this concept, employees are workers over whom the business may legally control and direct both (a) what must be done, and (b) how it must be done. Independent contractors are workers over whom the business may legally control and direct only what must be done. The business may not control how, when, or where the work is performed. From this case law, the IRS has identified common-law factors that it believes most clearly show the degree of control between the worker and the business, and have grouped these factors into three general categories of evidence: behavioral control, financial control, and the type of relationship between the parties. The IRS has not, however, provided a clear line between independent contractor and employee status.
Now there is some relief for a business owner who previously classified workers as independent contractors and desires to classify those workers as employees and, in addition, limit the exposure to back taxes, penalties, and interest. The IRS recently launched a program that allows the voluntary reclassification of workers as employees outside of the examination context: the Voluntary Contractor Settlement Program, or VCSP. “This settlement program provides certainty and relief to employers in an important area,” said IRS Commissioner Doug Shulman. “This is part of a wider effort to help taxpayers and businesses and give them a fresh start with their tax obligations.”
To be eligible for the VCSP, a business must have consistently treated the workers in question as nonemployees and filed all required Form 1099 information returns for those workers for the previous three years. In addition, the business cannot currently be under an audit by the IRS or under an audit addressing the classification of the workers by the Department of Labor or a state government agency.
To participate in the VCSP, a business must agree to prospectively treat the class of workers as employees during future tax periods. The business must also pay 10% of the employment tax liability that may have been due on compensation paid to the workers for the most recent tax year, determined under the reduced rates. In return for the 10% payment, the business will not be liable for any interest and penalties and will not be subject to an employment tax audit for those workers for prior years. However, a business participating in the VCSP must also agree to extend the period of limitations on assessment of employment taxes for three years for the first, second, and third calendar years beginning after the date on which the business has agreed to begin treating those workers as employees.
If the VCSP sounds a bit complicated, it is. But this may be a way to limit a business’s past and future liability for taxes, penalties, and interest.
Please contact us if you have questions concerning the VCSP or any other tax compliance or planning issues.